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Ph.D. project within Circular Built Environment


Nicolás Ramirez Ortiz,
Industrial Ph.D.


ODICO A/S, University of Southern Denmark (SDU)

Nico Pequena BLOXHUB


3DWaxForm – Circular Wax Formwork through High-Speed Robotic 3D-printing

The project aims to establish a revolutionary Additive Manufacturing method for low-cost, zero-waste, circular formwork production, that enables the construction of sophisticated concrete structures. Taking advantage of an untapped property of machining waxes to form a quasi-solid state in the phase-change transition between molten and solid state, the research will introduce a novel technique with high-speed large-scale additive manufacturing of wax formwork, called Accelerated Robotic Wax Deposition (ARWD). This technique can remove 374 million tons of yearly wood formwork waste from concrete construction and achieve a 78% cost reduction in formwork production. By delivering a sustainable and cost-competitive method, the initiative will allow the diffusion of shape-optimized structural designs, with potential reductions of CO2 emissions by 0.88 gigatons/year through reduced concrete usage, as well as a 1.2 billion DKK commercial opportunity for Danish green robot technology export in the construction sector. The project will be conducted by mechatronic engineer Nicolás Ramirez Ortiz, supervised by Asbjørn Søndergaard – CTO of ODICO A/S, and Associate Professor Roberto Naboni – Director of SDU CREATE.